An encumbrance is a mortgage or other charge on property or assets.
An entity is an individual (or corporation, partnership, trust, proprietorship, or association) that has legal standing in the eyes of the law.
Equity is the value an asset has over the liabilities owed. If you owe $10,000 on a $30,000 car, you have $20,000 of equity in the car.
Equity investment typically refers to buying and holding shares of stock in anticipation of profiting from dividends as the stock rises.
Escrow is money held by a third party on behalf of the parties participating in a transaction. The funds are held until the transacting parties have fulfilled their obligations.